Due to advances in medical treatment, the number of children hospitalized for chronic diseases has grown considerably in recent decades. Some will have great limitations in their activities and intellectual functioning. Some disabilities are permanent, others temporary. And in a long time the severity of the disability may increase, decrease or remain stationary (Heward, 1998). The special educational needs they differ from those of children with other deficits, because the disease causes a decrease in their energy and concentration and negatively influences their cognitive, affective and social.
Also, chronic diseases differ in intensity. Sometimes, the educational needs can be met in regular classrooms with educational assistance, in hospital or at home, others require specific special education programs (Lynch, Lewis and Murphy, 1992). Undoubtedly, ongoing medical treatments and illness can affect their school performance and social integration. Sick children, mainly with special educational needs are those with chronic diseases and long-term (cancer, diabetes, cystic fibrosis, AIDS, chronic renal failure, epilepsy, spina bifida, traumatic brain injury, etc.).. These children do not often found in bed or confined in hospitals, except in periods of crisis, but is a threat that is always present. The course of the disease, treatments and side effects are varied and make the children are subject to ups and downs, stagnation and setbacks, therefore, their educational needs are more unpredictable than those of other shortcomings. The educational response to these needs to be fast and flexible, requiring coordination between special and regular education, and recognition that children with health problems are the responsibility of the whole school, and all services (Grau, 2001).