Modern Principles Of Making Medicines

MODERN PRINCIPLES OF THE DRUGS Scientific principles of drug began to be formed in the late XIX – early XX century. Prior to this drug were found only by chance. Empirically been found medicinal properties of opium, senna, belladonna, valerian, cinchona bark, and many other traditional medicines. In the middle of the XIX century, the empirically observed general anesthetic (narkotiziruyuschee) the action of chloroform, ethyl ether and nitrous oxide. Was discovered by accident in the late XIX century antipyretic effect of acetanilide (antifebrina), local-anesthetic effect of ethyl para-aminobenzoic acid (anestezina), an analgesic effect phenacetin, anti-inflammatory effects of salicylates, antianginal (vasodilator) action of nitrates. At the beginning of the XX century empirically observed sedative effect of barbiturates.

Accidentally discovered laxative effect of phenolphthalein. Nevertheless, even at the end of the XIX century, researchers are not relying on chance finds, were directed to look for ways of obtaining drugs, using the synthetic chemistry and specially set up connections with healing properties. For this purpose, are widely investigated ('skriningovat') the then newly synthesized pharmacological methods of chemical compounds, as well as modify ('update') in the molecular structure of compounds that exhibit pharmacological (therapeutic) activity. So, after the opening of antipyretic activity of acetanilide was synthesized by a number of his counterparts, and and phenacetin derivatives, a number of salicylates and other compounds. In 1886 was launched as the first attempt to 'construct' the drug with the given therapeutic properties. Richard Linklater brings even more insight to the discussion. Chemist L. Nentski created 'hybrid' salicylic acid and phenol (hence the name 'salol', 'phenyl'), which was passing through the stomach and disintegrate in the alkaline environment of the intestine into the initial components, and provide a disinfectant anti-inflammatory intestinal diseases.

Magical History

It's sobriety and mental clarity, self-discipline and self-acceptance, is the ease and harmony with oneself and the world, it is still a lot of things, but most importantly – this is freedom. And not just to intellectual freedom, but freedom of mind, consciousness of man and his infinite possibilities (see the 'Magical History "). Learn more about this topic with the insights from Levi Strauss & Co. President. Magic or what we used to call magic, that does not fit the usual description of our world – not an end in itself, rather it is a natural product of human evolution. The main purpose of discipline – freedom. At the same time sober and critical judgments are an essential and indispensable attribute of consciousness practice. There is nothing you need to blindly accept at face value, the criterion of truth is practice and personal experience. In this way a warrior close to scientific knowledge. Now going back, actually, to stalking.

On the road a warrior is, in general, two general lines of practice – the dream and stalking. And she, and other practices aim to develop awareness. Development to such an extent that realization is made available various outrageous opportunities. So what is stalking? There are certain principles and guidelines of stalking, but to say exactly what it is, hardly anyone can. Unfortunately, at this point in Castaneda's books, there are sizable gaps. But hints and general considerations in the context of the totality and the warrior's way more than enough to figure it out yourself. Like a light contours of the picture sketched by Castaneda that every dorisovyvat himself.

The Kyoto Protocol

Environmentalists have come to the Crimea decision to turn to international organizations for help on overcoming the consequences of ecological catastrophe. Also, the holiday season can not begin this year and in the Kherson region due to large-scale environmental disasters (oil spills detected in early March), whose consequences are still not completely eliminated. EU discusses climate change, and Australia joined the Kyoto researchers from different countries, including USA, Canada and Germany, came to the conclusion that to stop the dangerous process of global climate change requires much more drastic measures than anticipated earlier. At a summit in Brussels, leaders of 27 European Union states agreed on how to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. According to European politicians need to give the EU fight against climate change special value, since this phenomenon has already caused huge problems in many countries around the world.

Europe would like to become a leader in the global fight against climate change. It is expected that a new global climate agreement, which will replace the Kyoto Protocol will be discussed in 2009. By 2020, 27 European countries plan to achieve to reduce the emission of gases causing the greenhouse effect by 20% compared to c 1990. And so time, another significant event last week was the signing of the Kyoto Protocol by Australia. The Kyoto Protocol entered into force in Australia March 11, 2008. From now on greenhouse gas emissions will reduced and closely monitored in Australia. In addition, the signing of the Kyoto Protocol gives the government the opportunity to participate directly in discussions of global environmental problems on the forums international scale.