Efflorescence and the reasons for their formation blooms on different surfaces are formed over time and spoil the appearance of the premises. In addition, the efflorescence contributing to the destruction of materials making up the structure, reducing their durability. The main reason for the formation of efflorescence – a crystallization of soluble compounds, which are composed of different solutions. For example, in cement alkali content often reaches several percent, the exact number depends on the material. During the firing at high temperature alkali deposited on the surface, while mixing with water form solutions. Also, calcium hydroxide can produce efflorescence. This connection goes to surface of the structure and reacts with carbon dioxide.
As a result of treatment with sodium hydroxide organic substances become capable rastoryatsya in the water. Features efflorescence in the concrete mix is large amount of soluble compounds, which under certain climatic conditions, appear on the surface structure. Brickwork forms a salt efflorescence at the expense of which may be in the building bricks and and alkalis contained in the cement and additives. In practice, most often if the brick is in the open air in special stacks, the efflorescence on the surface are formed. Their appearance can be provoked mortar.
Plays a major role the ability to absorb water and bricks to carry it to the surface from which the liquid evaporates. Types There are several types of efflorescence efflorescence: calcium carbonate, carbonate-sodium sulphate and sodium. They differ in chemical composition and method of formation. Calcium carbonate efflorescence formed by removal of material on the surface of calcium hydroxide and its interaction with carbon dioxide. Sodium carbonate efflorescence similarly appear with sodium hydroxide. Sodium sulfate efflorescence formed by crystallization. Recommendations for prevention education Limit one efflorescence of soluble compounds in materials for construction. 2 Reduction moisture content, making it hydrophobic and thus the exclusion re-wetting. 3 Provisional hydrophobization building and facing brick cold season. It reduces the water absorption of the material and increases its frost resistance, improves the insulating properties of walls, prevents damage structures salts. 4 Surface cleaning by rinsing with water, alkali or acid solutions. In each case, a set of measures to prevent the formation of efflorescence is determined individually.